Cells containing MCM proteins are found in body fluids when a cancer is present because the cells are shed by tumours in contact with that body fluid

There are 150,000 bladder cancer
diagnoses in EU per year

Ferlay J et al. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012.
Eur J Cancer 49(6), 1374-1403 (2013).

Bladder cancer has a 65% recurrence
rate, the highest of any malignancy

National Cancer Institute’s SEER database

The gold-standard diagnostic test for
bladder cancer, cystoscopy, is
invasive, uncomfortable
and expensive

5 million haematuria patients undergo
cystoscopy in Europe each year

Ferlay J et al. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012.
Eur J Cancer 49(6), 1374-1403 (2013)

Only 10% of haematuria patients are
typically diagnosed with
bladder cancer

Edwards TJ, Dickinson AJ, Natale S, et al. A prospective analysis of the diagnostic yield resulting from the
attendance of 4020 patients at a protocol-driven haematuria clinic. BJU Intl 2006; 97(2): 301–5

White Light Cystoscopy is considered
the gold standard test for
bladder cancer

Deshpande A et al. Bladder cancer diagnosis and management. GM, 06, 2014.

Up to 30% of bladder cancers are
missed at initial cystoscopy

Jocham D et al. Photodynamic diagnosis in urology: state-of-the-art. Eur Urol 53(6): 1138-48 (2008)
Zhangqun Ye et al. A comparison of NBI and WLI cystoscopy in detecting non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer:
A prospective, randomized and multi-center study. Sci Rep.; 5:10905 (2015).

Cells containing MCM proteins are found in body fluids when a cancer is present because the cells are shed by tumours

Where the MCM protein is found it is an signpost for the most likely form of cancer. MCM in the…

  • Urine is indicative of bladder cancer
  • Semen could be indicative of prostate cancer
  • Vaginal fluid could be indicative of endometrial or ovarian cancer

MCM positive cells are not usually present in body fluids in the absence of cancer or epithelial damage

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